Noun phrase

Until last week, we learned how to connect 2 or more sentences to set up the relation like contrast, reason, goal, etc.

From this week, we’ll learn how to use sentences as noun, adjective, or quote.

Let’s start with noun phrases.

To make noun phrases, you need to use -(으)ㅁ, -기, or -(으)ㄴ/는 것.

그가 한국에 살고 있음이 분명하다.
It is clear that he’s now living in South Korea.

내가 실수했음을 깨달았다.
I realized that I made a mistake.

대학생도 이 문제를 풀기는 어렵다.
This question is even hard for college students.

아버지는 딸이 무사히 돌아오기를 바라셨다.
He wanted his daughter to come back home safely.

나는 내가 질 것이라고 생각해 보지 않았다.
I haven’t thought that I would lose.

우리가 우승할 것이라고는 아무도 예상하지 않았다.
No one expected that we’ll win.

Let’s check grammar restictions.

In conversational Korean, -(으)ㄴ/는 것 is more frequently used than -(으)ㅁ.

그가 한국에 살고 있는 것이 분명해.
제가 실수한 것을 깨달았어요.

-(으)ㅁ and -기 are not usually interchangeable. In general, -(으)ㅁ is used when something is done or finished while -기 is used when something is not finished or you want to talk about how to do something.

그곳을 빠져 나오기는 힘들었다.
It was hard to get out of that place.

비가 오기를 기다리고 있다.
We’re waiting for the rain.

-기 is used a lot in phrases like -기 마련이다(something is natural in life), -기 위하여(to do something), -기 전에(before something).

살다 보면 이런저런 일이 생기기 마련이다.
In life, various things happen to us.

이기기 위해 최선을 다 했다.
I tried my best to win.

집에 가기 전에 이거 끝내고 가.
Finish this before going back home.