Multiple Markers 1

We learned almost all of the markers in Korean. What we’re going to do next is learning how to use multiple markers together.

If you see those markers used together, you think they randomly work together. But there are orders.

여기는까지 내가 할게. (x)
여기까지는 내가 할게. (o)
I’ll finish it until here.

이렇게 추운 곳도에서 졸고 있단 말이야? (x)
이렇게 추운 곳에서도 졸고 있단 말이야? (o)
Did you say he’s even dozing in this cold place?

To use multiple markers correctly together, we need to categorize markers in 4 groups.

Case marker I(subject, object, determiner): 이/가, 을/를, 의
Case marker II(adverb): 에, 에게, 에서, (으)로, 와/과, 처럼, 보다
Auxiliary marker I: 은/는, 야, 도, (이)나, (이)라도
Auxiliary marker II: 만, 까지, 다가, 밖에, 부터, 조차

The rule is this:

Case II + Auxiliary II + Case I/Auxiliary I

Let’s learn this rule with examples.

Don’t use case marker I with auxiliary marker I

You cannot use case marker I with auxiliary marker I. Remember the notorious 은/는 vs. 이/가. 은/는 is in Auxiliary marker I. 이/가 is in case marker I. When you want to add contrast, you should only use 은/는 and remove 이/가. In this case, auxiliary marker I is only used.

나야 처음부터 갈 생각이었어.
As for me, I was planning to go there from the beginning.

이거라도 먹을래?
I know it’s not the best choice. But will you eat it?


Case marker II + Case marker I

When 2 types of case markers are used together, case marker I(이/가, 을/를, 의) markers go to the back.

서울에서의 하루는 즐거웠다.
The day in Seoul was exciting.

집에를 가려면 어떻게 해야 하지?
What on earth should we do to go home?
(In this sentence, “에” is used to emphasize the meaning.)

학교에서가 아니라 집에서였던 걸로 기억하는데?
If I remember correctly, it was not in school, but in my home.

엄마와의 주말 데이트.
The date with my mom.


Auxiliary marker II + Case marker I

When auxiliary marker II(만, 까지, 다가, 밖에, 부터, 조차) is used together with case marker I, case marker I goes to the back.

너만이 우리의 희망이야.
You’re our only hope.

너만을 사랑해.
I only love you.

130쪽까지가 오늘 해야 할 분량이다.
I need to finish until the page 130 today.

여기부터를 지켜달라고 부탁받았는데, 결국 지키지 못했다.
I was told to protect from here. But I couldn’t.


Case marker II + Auxiliary marker I

When case marker II is used with auxiliary marker I, then auxiliary marker I goes to the back.

미국에도 빈민은 있다.
Even there are poor people in US.

우리 집으로라도 올래?
Will you come to my house (even if it’s not the best choice)?

우리나라에서야 그렇게 해도 되는데, 다른 나라 가서 그러면 안 돼.
You can do that in our country. But you should not do that in other countries.

너와는 함께 팀하고 싶지 않다.
I don’t want to team up with you.


We’ll see the other examples next week.