We'll learn informal casual style of talking this week. It's called 해체. It's not about breaking up something. It got this name because the declarative form of 하다 ends with 해.
Declarative: -해, -지
Declarative sentences end with -아/어 or -지. There's not much difference between them.
지금 컴퓨터 해.
I'm doing something with computer now.
회사 다 끝나고 집에 가고 있어.
All work done. Coming back home.
난 그냥 책 읽고 있지.
I'm just reading books.
Interrogative: -냐, -니,
The second honorific we'll learn is 합쇼체. These sentences end with -ㅂ니다. It is used in official and polite situations.
Declarative sentences end with -ㅂ니다 or -습니다.
저는 아침마다 책을 읽습니다.
I read books every morning.
제 실수로 이런 일이 벌어진 것에 대해 사과의 말씀을 드립니다.
I apologize for the situation that happened because of my mistakes.
Interrogative sentences end with -ㅂ니까. As it is used for the higher rank people, it is usually used in
We'll see the examples of 상대 높임법. As there are 6 types, we'll see each type at a time.
Before we start, I want to tell you about 5 sentence types in Korean. Declarative, interrogative, imperative, requesting, exclamatory.
- Declarative is a plain explanatory sentence that ends with a period like "he loves cookies".
- Interrogative sentence is a question like "do you love cookies?"
- Imperative sentence is command like "eat the cookies!"
- Requesting sentence is request like
Relative honorifics(상대 높임법) are used when you're trying to honor the listener. This honorific is related with whom you are talking to.
Subject Honorific vs. Relative Honorific
It might be confusing with the subject honorific which honors the subject of the sentence. Let's check the difference between them with these 2 examples.
Let's say you're talking to a kid, you might say:
엄마 어디 가셨니?
Where did your mom go?
In this case, "셨" is used to honor the kid's mother and
Like we saw at the end of the last episode, it is really hard to use subject honorific properly, even for native speakers.
One of the hardest things about this rule is 압존법, not using honorific in front of the higher-rank people about the lower-rank people than them.
You cannot understand what this means. The typical example of 압존법 is you talking about your father to your grandfather.
할아버지, 아버지는 아직 안 왔습니다. (O)
할아버지, 아버지는 아직 안 오셨습니다. (△)
Grandpa, father didn't
Let's start with honoring the subjects. For this grammar, you should remember 2 things: 께서 and -(으)시- ending. -(으)시- ending is necessary and 께서 is optional.
You should add -(으)시- to the verb in the sentence.
아버지는 책을 많이 읽으십니다. (읽다 -> 읽으시다 -> 읽으십니다)
My father reads books a lot.
선생님이 우리를 칭찬하셨어. (칭찬하다 -> 칭찬하시다 -> 칭찬하셨다 -> 칭찬하셨어)
Our teacher complimented us.
It is natural, but I want to note. You cannot honor yourself in Korean. So, the sentence