Sometimes we modify nouns with a sentence like the movie I saw yesterday night, a boy who was once kind, etc. We’ll learn how to speak that in Korean.
We use different adjective phrase endings for different tenses and normal/descriptive,이다 verb.
As for present tense, we use -는 for normal verbs -(으)ㄴ for descriptive and 이다 verb.
저기서 운동을 하고 있는 아이가 네 딸이니?
Is she your daughter? The kid exercising over there?
성품이 좋은 선수가 실력도 좋다.
The player who has good personality is also a good player.
But sometimes, present tense is used even though things aren’t happening right now.
저는 영어를 가르치는 일을 했어요.
I taught English as my job.
어제 국회의원인 친구를 만나 이야기를 했어요.
I met a senator friend yesterday and had a chat.
Wear verbs(입다, 쓰다, 신다, etc.) are normal verbs. But they use -(으)ㄴ to describe someone wearing something.
저기 파란 셔츠 입은 분 누구신지 알아?
Do you know the person in blue shirts there?
But if someone wears something frequently, you should use -는.
여기에 파란 셔츠를 즐겨 입는 사람 있나요?
Is there anyone here who wears blue shirts a lot?
When it is used with some time words like 중, 도중, 동안, you should use 는 even if you’re talking about past experience or future plans.
학교 가는 도중에 선생님을 만났어.
I met my teacher when I was going to school.
접수하러 가는 동안 많이 생각해 볼게요.
I’ll think about it a lot when I go register it.
You also need to use -는 with descriptive verbs that end with 있다 or 없다 like 맛있다, 멋없다, 재미있다, etc.
재미있는 일 좀 없나?
I wish there were something interesting.
점심은 맛없는 햄버거였어.
Lunch was a bad hamburger.
As for past tense, we can use -던, -았던/-었던 for all types of verbs, but we can only use -(으)ㄴ for normal verbs.
These 3 endings have different nuances.
* -(으)ㄴ: Something completely finished
* -던: something unfinished. Some works/state that you used to do a lot. Emphasizing your experience.
* -았던/-었던: Something that you used to do a lot is finished.
나는 그 책을 다 읽은 후 바로 잤다.
After finishing that book, I slept.
이 영화는 작년에도 봤던 건데…
I watched this movie last year.
어제까지만 해도 춥던 날씨가 많이 풀렸어요.
It was cold even yesterday. But it became a lot better.
As for future tense, we use -(으)ㄹ for all types of verbs.
이따가 가져갈 도시락 좀 챙겨 줄래?
Can you prepare the lunch pack for me?
With 때, 뿐, 뻔, 기회, 정도, 자신, 가능성, you should usually use -(으)ㄹ.
어릴 때는 일본에서 살았어요.
I lived in Japan when I was young.
한국에 올 기회가 많이 없었어요.
I didn’t have chance to visit Korea.
As for 이다 verb and descriptive verbs, -(으)ㄹ is used a lot with dependent nouns like 것, 줄. In other cases, you usually have to add verb like 되다.
그녀는 앞으로 세계적으로 유명한 개발자일 거예요. (x)
그녀는 앞으로 세계적으로 유명한 개발자가 될 거예요. (o)
She’ll be a famous developer worldwide.