휴가, 방학, 휴일, 공휴일, 빨간 날, 연말연시 – Korean Words vs. Words S2 #19

We love vacations and holidays. That's when we can get out of our stress and enjoy freedom. Did you know that in Korean there are many words for holidays? They are 휴가, 방학, 휴일, 공휴일, 연말연시. Let's learn them one by one.

휴가

휴가 is the vacation you can use if you work in companies. It's the word for adults who have job.

사장님은 휴가 중이셔서 이번 주에 출근하지 않으십니다.
The boss is on holiday, so he doesn't come to work this week.

우리 회사는 주 5일제에 한 해 6주의 휴가를 보장합니다.
Our company is 5 day workweek and provides 6 week holidays each year.

방학

All of us enjoys or enjoyed the vacations in schools. These vacations are called 방학 in Korean. Summer vacation is 여름 방학 and winter vacation is 겨울 방학. In Korea, 겨울 방학 is slightly longer than 여름 방학. It's really different from many western countries where summer vacation is really long and winter vacation is only a few weeks. There is also a 봄방학. After winter vacation, students go to school about a week. After that, there comes 2-week vacation until the start of new school year. It's 봄방학.

아이들 방학 숙제 때문에 전국을 여행했다.
For the vacation homework of my kids, I had to travel the whole country.

대학생들은 방학 때 알바를 하며 학자금을 모은다.
College students earn tuition fee by working in part time in vacation.

Then, what is the vacation for the teachers? Is it 방학 or 휴가? It depends. If they also take break when students are on vacation, then they are also enjoying 방학. However, if they take break in school period, it is 휴가.

휴일

휴일 is the general word for the days we don't work. Conceptually, 휴일 includes 방학 and 휴가. However, it is usually used with the pre-designated holidays like Sundays or National Holidays.

어느 화창한 휴일 오후, 그는 아내와 함께 거리를 걷고 있었다.
In a sunny holiday afternoon, he was walking along the street with his wife.

오늘은 휴일이라 가족끼리 모여서 음식을 만들어 먹었다.
As today is holiday, our family gathered to make some food and ate together.

공휴일

공휴일 is public holiday. These dates are decided by government that we should take rest in those days. As these days are colored red on calendars, many Koreans call these days as 빨간 날. The antonym of 공휴일 or 빨간 날 is 평일.

공휴일이 주일인 경우 그 다음 평일을 대체 공휴일로 정해 쉰다.
If public holiday is on Sunday, the closest next weekday is set as substitution holiday and take break that day.

공휴일에도 회사에 나가 일해야 하는 분들이 있다.
There are some people who should go to work on public holidays.

Then, what's the difference between 공휴일 and 휴일? Some industries are working on 빨간 날s and taking rest on weekdays. For example, department stores work on Sundays and don't work on Mondays. Many beauty shops in Korea don't work on Tuesdays. These Mondays and Tuesdays are 휴일 in that industry but they are not 공휴일. They are usually called 정기휴일.

연말연시

At the end of the year, there are many holidays. These holidays are called 연말연시(年末年始) in Korean. It just means the end and the beginning of the year.

연말연시 잘 보내세요.
Happy Holidays.