해라체 examples – Korean Polite Language #5
We'll see the examples of 상대 높임법. As there are 6 types, we'll see each type at a time.
Before we start, I want to tell you about 5 sentence types in Korean. Declarative, interrogative, imperative, requesting, exclamatory.
- Declarative is a plain explanatory sentence that ends with a period like "he loves cookies".
- Interrogative sentence is a question like "do you love cookies?"
- Imperative sentence is command like "eat the cookies!"
- Requesting sentence is request like "let's eat cookies!"
- Exclamatory sentence is to show surprise like "what a great cookie!"
In this episode, we'll learn 해라체. As we all know, it is used between friends or to lower-rank people in formal situations.
For declarative sentences, we should use -ㄴ다/-는다 forms.
나는 아침마다 운동을 한다.
I exercise every morning.
그녀는 주말에도 학교에 간다.
She goes to school even on weekends.
너무 더워서 한 숨도 못 잤다.
I couldn't sleep because it was really hot.
For interrogative sentences, we should append -냐. In some cases, you can use -니, too. -니 sounds a little bit softer than -냐.
What are you doing now?
어제 어디 갔었냐?
Where did you go yesterday?
오늘 뭐 할 거니?
What are you going to do today?
For imperative sentences, you should append -아/어라.
내일 10시까지 여기 와라.
Come here until 10 a.m. tomorrow.
밤에 돌아다니지 마라.
Don't move around at nights.
For requesting sentences, you should append -자.
오늘은 여기까지 하자.
Let's finish it here.
내일은 가지 말자.
Let's not go there tomorrow.
내일 또 보자!
See you again tomorrow.
For exclamatory sentences, you should append -ㄴ/는구나.
그렇게 많이 했구나.
You really did it a lot.
You did a great job.
In old Korean sentences, you can find some endings like "-노라", "-느니라", "-도다", "-리라". "-느니라", "-도다" are for present tense declarative sentences. And "-리라" is the future version of old Korean. "-노라" is for exclamatory sentences.
처음에 하나님께서 하늘과 땅을 창조하시니라.
In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.
내가 세상의 끝까지 너희와 함께 있으리라
I am with you always, even unto the end of the world.
왔노라! 보았노라! 이겼노라!
Veni, vidi, vici! (I came; I saw; I won!)