하소서체 examples - Korean Polite Language #11

We'll learn 하소서체 today. 하소서체 is almost dead in contemporary Korean language. You can only find this in prayers in churches and the Bible verses these days. You can also hear them in some history dramas. But these days, even history dramas avoid using them.

하소서체 is more polite than 합쇼체/합시다체. So, it was used against God or kings. And it is still used for God in churches.

Declarative: 나이다.

Declarative forms use -나이다. Future form is -리이다.

당신의 종이 여기에서 일하고 있었던 것을 아시나이다.
You know that your servant worked here.

내일 이곳에서 기다리이다.
I'll wait for you here.

Interrogative: -나이까?

Interrogative form uses -나이까.

여기에서 무엇을 하시나이까?
What are you doing here?

주여, 어디로 가시나이까?
Lord, where are you going?

Imperative: -소서

You might think that it's odd to have imperative form in 하소서체, but there is. And it is used a lot. It is -소서.

But it feels more like pleading than commanding.

내가 주의 법규들을 지키오리니 오 나를 아주 버리지 마옵소서.
I will keep thy statutes: O forsake me not utterly. (Psalms 119:8)

전하, 통촉하여 주시옵소서.
Your Majesty, please stop.

Requesting: -사이다.

When you request something, you should use the ending -사이다.

여기에 집을 짓고 함께 거하사이다.
Let's build a house here and live here.

마침 잔치가 있으니 함께 참여하사이다.
There is a party here. Let's participate.


I cannot find the grammar explanation about the exclamatory version of 하소서체. But I guess that it's not different from declarative form like many other styles.

It was amazing.

정말 대단하옵니다.
It's really great.

Until here, we learned every relative honorific forms, 해라체, 합쇼체, 해체, 해요체, 하게체, 하오체, 하소서체.

Next week, we'll learn special words that we use with polite language.

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