발달, 발전, 성장, 향상, 진보 – Korean Words vs Words #30
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We should improve. Today should be better than yesterday. We will learn improvement-related words today, 발달, 발전, 성장, 향상, 진보.
Both 발전 and 발달
Both 발전 and 발달 can be used to describe the improvement of knowledge, technology or society. You can say 과학 기술의 발전 or 과학 기술의 발달(improvement of science and technology), and 의학의 발전 or 의학의 발달(the improvements of medical science).
과학 기술의 발달로 몇 십년 전만 해도 며칠은 걸릴 거리를 요즘은 몇 시간 내로 이동할 수 있다.
Thanks to the improvement of science and technology, we can move the distance in a few hours which once took a few days to cover.
의학이 발전하면서 사람들의 수명이 늘어나고 있다.
Due to the improvements of the medical science, the life span of people is constantly increasing.
But there are differences between 발전 and 발달.
발달 is only used when you want to say the growth of body, intelligence, emotion of people. The examples are 정서적 발달(emotional development), 지능 발달(intellectual improvement), etc.
음악은 아이의 정서적 발달에 도움이 된다.
Music is helpful for the emotional development of kids.
지능 발달을 생각해서 딸아이에게 책을 사 주었다.
I considered the intellectual development of my daughter and bought her some books.
In addition, 발달 is used in weather forecast. You can hear 고기압의 발달(development of high pressure) or 장마 전선의 발달(the development of seasonal rain front). You cannot use 발전 in these cases.
발전 is only used when you want to describe the development of story or scenario.
사태의 발전 양상을 보니 아무래도 우리가 의도했던 것과 다른 결과를 얻을 것 같다.
As I saw the development of the case, it seems that we will get the result that is different from our expectation.
Particularly, 발전 is used a lot with the economy. As the economy is related with society, it seems that you can also say 경제 발달. It is much less frequently used than 경제 발전. I found some examples like 17세기 네덜란드의 경제 발달(the economic development of Holland in 17th century), 송나라의 경제 발달(the economic development of Song Empire). I couldn't find any contemporary example. Therefore, just use 발전 with 경제, not 발달.
대한민국은 빠른 시간에 엄청난 경제 발전을 이룬 것으로 유명하다.
Korea is famous for its dramatically fast economic development.
성장 means the growth. It is usually used for the growth of people and company.
그 회사는 경제 불황으로 인해 큰 폭의 마이너스 성장을 기록했다.
The company recorded a huge negative growth because of the depression.
물고기의 성장 과정에 대해 조사를 해 봐야겠다.
I think I should research the growth stages of fish.
향상 means improvement of ability, state or technology. You can say like 기술 향상(the improvement of technology), 수준 향상(the improvement of ability or state), 생산력 향상(the improvement of productivity).
기계를 도입해 생산력을 향상시켰다.
We improved our productivity by introducing a new machine.
경제 수준이 향상되면 문화 수준 역시 같이 향상된다.
When the economic state is improved, then the cultural state is also improved.
The basic meaning of 진보 is moving one step ahead. That's why it got the meaning, improvement. However, it is not frequently used for this meaning. If you search 진보 in Naver, almost every sentence you can find talks about the politics, because it means progressive or liberal view in politics. 진보 as improvement is usually found on books. As we learned liberal, some of you listeners might wondered what conservative is in Korean. It is 보수.
과학 기술의 진보가 꼭 사회에 긍정적인 영향을 가져 오는 것은 아니다.
The improvement of science and technology doesn't necessarily bring positive effects to the society.