긴 장(長)/짧을 단(短) – Korean Hanja #10
3 Speed Only
When we compare 2 objects, one of them is long and the other is short. Today's characters 긴 장(長) and 짧을 단(短) are for the lengths. Long and short are their basic meanings, but there are other meanings derived from them. Let's learn them one by one.
Let's see some examples of 장 and 단 in their basic meanings, long and short. 기간 is period, so 장기간 is long period and 단기간 is short period.
단기간에 참 많이 성장했구나.
You grew up a lot in a short period.
장기간에 걸쳐서 많은 것을 수정했다.
Many things are revised for a long period of time.
There are other examples of 장 and 단 meaning long and short.
소설 is novel, so 장편소설 is long novel. 단편소설 is short novel.
As 신(身) means body, 장신 means tall because it means long body. 단신 means short because it means short body.
Before we go on to the next example, there is one more thing to tell you. In our first example, there was the verb, 성장하다. 장 here is also a 긴 장 and 성(成) means achieve, so 성장 is basically to achieve to be long. Everything becomes bigger and longer after they grow up. Because of that, 성장 got the meaning growing up.
Being long isn't necessarily good, but many people think that they are good. Because of this common idea, 장점(長點) got the meaning strength or good point. 단점(短點) got the meaning weakness or bad point.
장점을 더욱 키우고, 단점은 보완하자.
I should develop my strengths, and improve my weaknesses.
단점만 보지 말고, 장점도 찾아 봐야겠다.
We should not just watch the weaknesses, but we should find some strengths.
장 as the Head
In English, we call the person who is in the highest rank of a department as the Head of the department. We can easily guess the meaning because your head is above everyone if you are tall.
It is similar in Korean, too. The names of these ranks end with 장 like 사장(head of company), 회장(head of group of companies), 부장(head of department), 국장(head of broadcasting system), 추장(chief of an old society), 족장(chief of a family), etc.
회장님, 사장님, 이사장님 등 높으신 분들은 다 오신 것 같아.
It seems that the every high rank people are here like president, boss, chairman, etc.
장남/장녀 is first-born son or daughter.
단축(短縮) is to shorten or make something shorter. 축 here means reduce or shorten.