-ㅁ/-음/-기 – Korean Grammar vs Grammar #4

3 Speed Only

With Explanation

When you want to make an adjective, verb, adverb a noun, -tion, -ing or -ness is added at the end of the word. In Korean, -ㅁ, -음, -기 is added, but there is some difference. Today's topic is the difference between them.

-ㅁ/-음

-ㅁ and -음 is used when you are trying to say something happened in the past or which is decided or finished.

맡겨 주신 일 다 끝냈음.
I finished the work you gave me.

포기하는 것이 진짜 지는 것임을 아는 그들을 응원한다.
We support them who knows giving up is the true defeat.

이쪽은 끝났음. 임무 완수 시 연락 바람.
The operation ended here. If done, please tell me.

In first sentence, the speaker ended the work. In second one, if you give up now, your failure or defeat is decided, so -ㅁ is used. The final one 바람 is a bit confusing. Although the action, 연락(contact), is not done, but the request itself is finished. That's why -ㅁ is used here.

The difference between -ㅁ and -음 is the end of the word in front of them. When the front part ends with a consonant, then it is -음, when vowel, it is -ㅁ.

-기

-기 is used when you are emphasizing the action or something that is happening now or in the near future.

이번 체육대회 때는 우리도 이름표 떼기 해 볼까?
In the sports day this year, how about doing name tag ripping?

잡히기 전에 빨리 도망가야겠다.
Before I get caught, I should leave now.

과거 빨리 먹기 대회 3등한 적이 있다고 들었는데, 그 때 이야기 좀 들을 수 있을까요?
I heard that you won the third place in fast eating competition. Can we hear more about it?

그렇게 맛있는 것 혼자 먹기. 있기? 없기?
Eating something good alone. How did you do something like that?

이름표 떼기, the famous game in Running Man, ends with -기 because it emphasizes the action. If your name tag is ripped, then it might be called 이름표를 뗐음. In 잡히기 전, before getting caught, you are not caught right now, so it is near future, that's why it is 잡히기. If you are caught, then it should be 잡혔음 or 잡힘. 먹기 대회 is about eating. It is related with the action, eating. The final one, 있기 없기, it is used a lot between close friends. When someone does something selfish, you can state what you did and end the sentence with 있기? 없기? Then, it becomes comical or humorous way of telling her wrong decision. In addition, there is a KPOP song called 있기 없기.