When we were learning tense expressions, we learned that future tense endings like 겠 and -을/를 것이다 are used for estimation or guesses. They are not the only guessing expressions in Korean. We'll learn other expressions today.
It is used when you're guessing about the current or near-future situation. One thing to note is that it is 반말 expression. If you want to be polite, use -(으)ㄹ 거예요.
지금쯤이면 집에 있을걸?
She might be in her house now.
In English grammar, aspects are added to tense expressions. It's the perfect, progressive things in present perfect or past progressive.
In Korean, aspect is the attitude which the speaker has about the sentence. Like always, grammar words are hard. Let's see some examples.
철수는 내일 미국으로 간다.
철수 will go to US tomorrow.
철수는 내일 미국으로 가겠다.
I guess that 철수 will go to US tomorrow.
The difference between these 2 sentences is how much the speaker is sure about
We learned special words that you should use when you want to speak politely. In this episode, I'll talk about special nouns.
밥 -> 진지
진지 here has nothing to do with being serious.
Did you have a meal?
One thing to note is that 진지 is used a lot for old people. When you are talking politely to someone around your age, it is usually "식사는 하셨어요?"
이름 -> 성함
성함이 어떻게 되세요?
성함 좀 여쭈어 봐도 될까요?
In Korean and Japanese polite language, there are special words for it. We'll learn verbs this week and nouns next week.
먹다 -> 잡수시다, 드시다.
Did you eat breakfast?
다 드셨으면 다음 장소로 가겠습니다.
If you finished eating, we'll go on to the next place.
마시다 -> 드시다
Usually, we don't speak "eat water" in English. However, "물을 먹다" is natural in Korean. The border between 먹다 and 마시다 are a bit blurrier in Korean than English.
We'll learn 하소서체 today. 하소서체 is almost dead in contemporary Korean language. You can only find this in prayers in churches and the Bible verses these days. You can also hear them in some history dramas. But these days, even history dramas avoid using them.
하소서체 is more polite than 합쇼체/합시다체. So, it was used against God or kings. And it is still used for God in churches.
Declarative forms use -나이다. Future form is -리이다.
Another honorific style is 하오체. Unlike 하게체, it's hard to find someone using 하오체 in daily conversation. It doesn't mean it's grammatically wrong. It's just not used much in real life. You can find this style almost only in history dramas.
Actually, this style was really popular in Internet world about 15 years ago. But you cannot find it any more in 2017.
하오체 was used when you are not sure the listener should be honored. When you felt it sounds