In Korean and Japanese polite language, there are special words for it. We'll learn verbs this week and nouns next week.
먹다 -> 잡수시다, 드시다.
Did you eat breakfast?
다 드셨으면 다음 장소로 가겠습니다.
If you finished eating, we'll go on to the next place.
마시다 -> 드시다
Usually, we don't speak "eat water" in English. However, "물을 먹다" is natural in Korean. The border between 먹다 and 마시다 are a bit blurrier in Korean than English.
We'll learn 하소서체 today. 하소서체 is almost dead in contemporary Korean language. You can only find this in prayers in churches and the Bible verses these days. You can also hear them in some history dramas. But these days, even history dramas avoid using them.
하소서체 is more polite than 합쇼체/합시다체. So, it was used against God or kings. And it is still used for God in churches.
Declarative forms use -나이다. Future form is -리이다.
Another honorific style is 하오체. Unlike 하게체, it's hard to find someone using 하오체 in daily conversation. It doesn't mean it's grammatically wrong. It's just not used much in real life. You can find this style almost only in history dramas.
Actually, this style was really popular in Internet world about 15 years ago. But you cannot find it any more in 2017.
하오체 was used when you are not sure the listener should be honored. When you felt it sounds
We covered 4 major honorific styles, 해라체, 합쇼체, 해체, 해요체. And we have 2 more honorifics, 하게체 and 하오체. These 2 styles are less frequently used than those 4 and usually used by older people. However, it can be useful to know them. Because you can hear them in some TV shows and dramas. Even in real world.
Let's start with 하게체. 하게체 is used when you're talking to younger or lower-rank people but you don't want to show that
Like I said earlier in the series, if you're not sure which form to use, it's usually the best choice to use 해요체. And then, you'll decide which style to use after that.
It's a friendly and polite, so I recommend it. And many Koreans do that, too.
One thing interesting about 해요체 is that almost every sentence with different intentions end with -요. Only imperative form ends with -세요. So, you should check the context and intonation to understand
We'll learn informal casual style of talking this week. It's called 해체. It's not about breaking up something. It got this name because the declarative form of 하다 ends with 해.
Declarative: -해, -지
Declarative sentences end with -아/어 or -지. There's not much difference between them.
지금 컴퓨터 해.
I'm doing something with computer now.
회사 다 끝나고 집에 가고 있어.
All work done. Coming back home.
난 그냥 책 읽고 있지.
I'm just reading books.